Human Factors & Ergonomics

Module 1

Introduction to Ergonomics

  1. Quick Start Guide to MET 423 and MET 523 Ergonomics and Work Measurement

Part I: Human Capability

Module 2

Occupational Anatomy

  1. Introduction to Musculoskeletal Anatomy

  2. The Spine

  3. The Rotator Cuff

  4. The Joints

  5. The Tendons

  6. The Muscles

  7. The Nerves

  8. Range of Motion ROM Wrist Forearm Flexion Extension Ulnar Radial Deviation Pronation and Supination

Module 3

Occupational Biomechanics

  1. Classes Types of Lever in the Human Body

  2. Lever Systems in the Human Body Explained with Example Knee Joint First, Second or Third Class?

  3. How to Solve Lever Problems

  4. Biomechanical Effect of Work Elbow Lever Example

  5. Biomechanical Effect of Work Elbow Posture Example

  6. Biomechanical Effect of Work Back Muscle (Erector Spinae) Force Calculation Example

  7. Biomechanical Effect of Work Lower Back Problem Example

  8. Effect of Posture on the Lower Back while Lifting Weight

  9. Effect of Body Weight and Posture on the Lower Back

Module 4

Occupational Physiology

You could download the formulas used in the videos: Work Physiology Formulas updated Feb 2020

  1. How to Estimate Normal Blood Pressure

  2. Maximum Heart Rate

  3. Heart Rate Reserve (=Maximum Aerobic Capacity or Power)

  4. Percent of HR Reserve

  5. Activity Training Exercise Ergonomic Zone of Heart Rate Reserve

  6. Target/Activity Heart Rate

  7. Training Zone Heart Rate

  8. Design and Evaluate Worktask Using Heart Rate

  9. Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)

  10. Activity Metabolism (Calorie Burn) from Heart Rate

  11. Calorie Burn Calculation in Running Using Body Weight & Distance

  12. Calorie Burn Calculation in Walking Using Body Weight & Distance

  13. Daily Calorie Requirement Based on BMR

  14. Digestive Metabolism

  15. Daily Calorie Requirement based on Activity

  16. Food Calorie Calculation

  17. Human Body Efficiency in Converting Food to Energy

  18. How to Calculate Mechanical Work for Running

  19. Human Body Mechanical Efficiency

  20. What is the most Efficient Transportation, Walking, Running, Cycling, Motorcycling, or Driving a Car?

Part II: Workstation

Module 5

Workstation Design Using Anthropometric Design Principle

You must check the ADA guidelines before using the design principles demonstrated in the following videos. For example, (1) the grocery store checkout counter height should be no more than 38 inches tall, (2) An accessible table has a surface height of no more than 34 inches and no less than 28 inches above the floor (restaurant table), (3) etc.

  1. Workstation Design Using Anthropometric Principle

  2. Conversion of Anthropometric Data to Any Percentile Example

  3. Workstation Design Using Anthropometric Principle Door Height Example

  4. Workstation Design Using Anthropometric Principle Non-Adjustable Chair Height Example

  5. Workstation Design Using Anthropometric Principle Adjustable Chair Height Example

  6. Workstation Design Using Anthropometric Principle Non-Adjustable Table Desk Example

  7. Workstation Design Using Anthropometric Principle Chair Seat Width Example

  8. Workstation Design Using Anthropometric Principle Airplane Seat Width Example

  9. Workstation Design Using Anthropometric Principle Seat Length Example

  10. Workstation Design Using Anthropometric Principle Bicycle Top Tube Example

Part III: Manual Work

Module 6

NIOSH Lifting Equation

  1. NIOSH Lifting Equation Introduction

  2. NIOSH Lifting Equation Single Task Example

  3. NIOSH Lifting Equation Multi-Tasks Example (Only for Graduate Students)

Module 7

Manual Work Design Tools and Methods

  1. Borg Rating of Perceive Exertion Scale

  2. Swedish Occupational Fatigue Inventory (SOFI)

  3. Rapid Upper Limb Assessment RULA Application Example

  4. Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) Application Example

  5. Strain Index Application Example 1

  6. Strain Index Application Example 2

  7. Snook Table Application Example

Part IV: Work Environment

Module 8

Work Environment Noise

  1. Addition of Simultaneous Noise Sources

  2. Noise Exchange Rate or Doubling Rate

  3. How to calculate the Time Weighted Average TWA for Noise Exposure Level for an eight hour work-shift

Module 9

Work Environment Climate

  1. Heat Stress Evaluation Basic Method used by OSHA NIOSH CDC Explained With Examples

  2. Heat Stress Evaluation Quick and Easy Method Used by OSHA NIOSH CDC Explained with Examples

  3. Acclimatization Guideline by OSHA, NIOSH, & CDC, Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments Explained

  4. Heat Stress Heat Related Illness Heat Stroke, Heat Exhaustion, Rhabdomyolysis, Heat Syncope, Heat Cramps, Heat Rash, Symptoms & What to do? (Document Used in the Video)

Part V: Hazard Analysis

Module 10

Risk, Safety & Hazard Assessment Tools: FTA & FMEA

  1. Fault Tree Analysis (FTA)

  2. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA)

Part VI: Time Study

Module 11

Time Study & Work Measurement

  1. Learning Curve Explained with Example Calculations Using MS Excel

  2. Introduction to Work Measurement Motion Time Study (Document used in the Video)

  3. How to determine cycle time, required number observations, sample size

  4. How to Determine Work Occurrence Sampling, Observations, and Sample Size

  5. What is Performance Pace Speed Rating

  6. Speed Rating System of Performance

  7. Westinghouse Performance Rating System

  8. Synthetic Performance Rating

  9. Allowances in Standard Time Calculation

  10. Standard Normal and Observed Time Calculation

  11. Standard and Normal Time Calculation Advanced Exampl1 1

  12. Standard and Normal Time Calculation Advanced Example 2

  13. Introduction to Predetermined Time Systems, Time and Motion Study, Methods-Time Measurement, MTM

  14. Methods Time Measurement MTM 1

  15. Methods Time Measurement MTM 2

  16. Maynard Operation Sequence Technique MOST

References

References for Module 1 Introduction to Ergonomics

*All references for each module are listed based on the use in the video demonstrations, not by the alphabetic order.

  1. Overall

  2. Sanders, M. and McCormick E. (1993) Human Factors In Engineering and Design 7th Edition. McGraw-Hill Education.

  3. Konz, S and Johnson, S (2008). Work Design: Occupational Ergonomics, 7th Edition. Holcomb Hathaway Publications: Scottsdale, AZ.

  4. Pheasant, S., & Haslegrave, C. M. (2016). Bodyspace: Anthropometry, ergonomics and the design of work, 3rd Edition. Boca Raton : CRC Press.

  5. Freivalds, A., Niebel, B. (2013). Niebel's Methods, Standards, & Work Design, 13th Edition. McGraw-Hill Education

  6. Chaffin, D. B., Andersson, G. B. J., Martin, B. J., & John Wiley & Sons. (2006). Occupational biomechanics. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

  7. Åstrand, P.-O. (2003). Textbook of work physiology. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

  8. Helander, M. (2005). A guide to human factors and ergonomics, 2nd Edition. Crc Press.

2. Cognitive Ergonomics

  1. Wickens, C. D., Hollands, J. G., Banbury, S. & Parasuraman, R. (2012). Engineering Psychology and Human Performance. London: Taylor and Francis.

3. Macroergonomics/Organizational Ergonomics

  1. Pasmore, W. A. (1988). Designing effective organizations: The sociotechnical systems perspective. New York: Wiley.

  2. Hendrick, H. W., & In Kleiner, B. M. (2009). Macroergonomics: Theory, methods, and applications. Mahwah, N.J: CRC Press.

Reference for Module 2 Occupational Anatomy

  1. Chaffin, D. B., Andersson, G. B. J., Martin, B. J., & John Wiley & Sons. (2006). Occupational biomechanics. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

  2. Reese, N. B., & Bandy, W. D. (2016). Joint range of motion and muscle length testing. 3rd edition. ISBN-10: 1455758825, ISBN-13: 978-1455758821.

  3. Delavier, F. (2010). Strength training anatomy, 3rd Edition. Human Kinetics, Inc. ISBN-10: 0736092269, ISBN-13: 978-0736092265.

Reference for Module 3 Occupational Biomechanics

  1. Chaffin, D. B., Andersson, G. B. J., Martin, B. J., & John Wiley & Sons. (2006). Occupational biomechanics. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

  2. Delavier, F. (2010). Strength training anatomy, 3rd Edition. Human Kinetics, Inc. ISBN-10: 0736092269, ISBN-13: 978-0736092265.

  3. Konz, S and Johnson, S (2008). Work Design: Occupational Ergonomics, 7th Edition. Holcomb Hathaway Publications: Scottsdale, AZ.

Reference for Module 4 Occupational Physiology

  1. Åstrand, P.-O. (2003). Textbook of work physiology. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

  2. Harris JA, Benedict FG (1918). A Biometric Study of Human Basal Metabolism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 4 (12): 370–3. [Video # 8 under the Module 4: Work physiology]

  3. Roza AM, Shizgal HM (1984). The Harris Benedict equation reevaluated: resting energy requirements and the body cell mass. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 40 (1): 168–82. [Video # 8 under the Module 4: Work physiology]

  4. Mifflin MD, St Jeor ST, Hill LA, Scott BJ, Daugherty SA, Koh YO (1990). A new predictive equation for resting energy expenditure in healthy individuals. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 51 (2): 241–7. [Video # 8 under the Module 4: Work physiology]

  5. Keytel, L. R., Goedecke, J. H., Noakes, T. D., Hiiloskorpi, H., Laukkanen, R., van der Merwe, L., & Lambert, E. V. (2005). Prediction of energy expenditure from heart rate monitoring during submaximal exercise. Journal of sports sciences, 23(3), 289-297. [Video # 9 under the Module 4: Work physiology]

  6. Cavagna, G. A., Saibene, F. P., & Margaria, R. (1964). Mechanical work in running. Journal of applied physiology, 19(2), 249-256. [Video: Calculation of Running Mechanical Work]

  7. Cavagna, G. (2019). Fundamentals of human physiology, 1st Edition. Springer ISBN-10: 3030194035 ISBN-13: 978-3030194031. [Running and Walking Metabolic Cost/Calorie Burn Calculation]

Reference for Module 5 Workstation Design Using Anthropometric Design Principle

  1. Pheasant, S., & Haslegrave, C. M. (2016). Bodyspace: Anthropometry, ergonomics and the design of work, 3rd Edition. Boca Raton : CRC Press.

  2. Pheasant, S., & Haslegrave, C. M. (2006). Bodyspace: Anthropometry, ergonomics, and the design of work. Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis.

  3. Helander, M. (2005). A guide to human factors and ergonomics, 2nd Edition. Crc Press.

  4. Anthropometric Reference Data for Children and Adults: United States, 2011–2014

Reference for Module 8 NIOSH lifting Equation

  1. The NIOSH Lifting Equation PDF Manual can be downloaded from the CDC website on this link.

  2. The NIOSH Lifting Equation Manual Online Version on this link.

  3. Tables

Reference for Module 9 RULA, REBA, SI, Borg, & SOFI

  1. Borg Scale:Borg, G. A. (1982). Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion. Med sci sports exerc, 14(5), 377-381.

  2. Cornell University Ergonomics Web. http://ergo.human.cornell.edu/cutools.html . Retrieved on February 2017. [MS Excel macros can be downloaded from the Cornell Ergo site]

  3. SOFI Scale: Åhsberg, E., & Gamberale, F. (1998). Perceived fatigue during physical work: an experimental evaluation of a fatigue inventory. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 21(2), 117-131.

  4. RULA: McAtamney, L., & Corlett, E. N. (1993). RULA: a survey method for the investigation of work-related upper limb disorders. Applied ergonomics, 24(2), 91-99.

  5. REBA: Hignett, S., & McAtamney, L. (2000). Rapid entire body assessment (REBA). Applied ergonomics, 31(2), 201-205.

  6. Strain Index: Steven Moore, J., & Garg, A. (1995). The strain index: a proposed method to analyze jobs for risk of distal upper extremity disorders. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 56(5), 443-458.

  7. Snook Table: Snook, S. H., & Ciriello, V. M. (1991). The design of manual handling tasks: revised tables of maximum acceptable weights and forces. Ergonomics, 34(9), 1197-1213.

  8. Snook Table: Snook, S. H. (1978). The Ergonomics Society the Society's Lecture 1978. THE design of manual handling tasks. Ergonomics, 21(12), 963-985.

Reference for Module 10 Workstation, Machines & Tools Evaluation Checklists

  1. Freivalds, A., Niebel, B. (2013). Niebel's Methods, Standards, & Work Design, 13th Edition. McGraw-Hill Education

Reference for Module 11 Work Environment Noise

  1. Sanders, M. and McCormick E. (1993) Human Factors In Engineering and Design 7th Edition. McGraw-Hill Education.

  2. OSHA Technical Manual (Guidelines) on Noise

Reference for Module 12 Work Environment Climate

  1. Sanders, M. and McCormick E. (1993) Human Factors In Engineering and Design 7th Edition. McGraw-Hill Education.

  2. Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments by Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

  3. Heat Stress - Heat Related Illness, The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services

Reference for Module 14 Risk, Safety & Hazard Assessment Tools: FTA & FMEA

  1. Nancy R. Tague. (2005). The quality toolbox. Asq Press.

  2. Stamatis, D. H. (2003). Failure mode and effect analysis: FMEA from theory to execution. Quality Press.

  3. Freivalds, A., Niebel, B. (2013). Niebel's Methods, Standards, & Work Design, 13th Edition. McGraw-Hill Education

Reference for Module 16 Cognitive Work Design

  1. Wickens, C. D., Hollands, J. G., Banbury, S. & Parasuraman, R. (2012). Engineering Psychology and Human Performance. London: Taylor and Francis.

  2. Freivalds, A., Niebel, B. (2013). Niebel's Methods, Standards, & Work Design, 13th Edition. McGraw-Hill Education

Reference for Module 17 Time Study

  1. Freivalds, A., Niebel, B. (2013). Niebel's Methods, Standards, & Work Design, 13th Edition. McGraw-Hill Education (Video # 1. Cycle Time Calculation)

  2. Konz, S and Johnson, S (2008). Work Design: Occupational Ergonomics, 7th Edition. Holcomb Hathaway Publications: Scottsdale, AZ. (Video # 2. Work & Occurrence Sampling)

  3. Lowry, S. M., H. B. Maynard, and G. J. Stegemerten. Time and Motion Study and Formulas for Wage Incentives . 3d ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1940.

  4. Therbligs: The Keys to Simplifying Work