Approximate or Pseudo
Exact F-test or F-Statistics cannot be performed for the effect that does not have any direct association with any other expected mean square term. For example, the effect C does not have a direct relationship with any other expected mean square that can be used as the divisor for the F-test/F-Statistics. When the exact F-Statistics/F-test does not exist, pseudo F-test or approximate F-test can be performed by using any appropriate linear combinations of the expected mean squares, which produces all expected mean square components, but the interested effect. To perform an approximate F-test for C, the linear combination of “MS(BC)+MS(AC)-MS(ABC)” can be used, which results in all expected mean square components, but the C component. Therefore, the linear combination of “MS(BC)+MS(AC)-MS(ABC)” is the associated random error with C effect, and can be used as a denominator to perform the F-test for C. The degree of freedom is calculated by Equation 5.